It’s finally time….
Many people I meet, even people I talk to on a regular basis, do not have background knowledge of anthropology, and I think that is fairly typical. Anthropology isn’t taught in the American public school system and most people have only had a limited introduction to one of Anthropology’s subfields. Archeology or Forensic Anthropology are commonly brought up as points of reference. Indiana Jones and the tv show Bones being the most famous, albeit fictional, anthropologists today. These are indeed crucial parts of the holistic endeavor to understand human beings, but the methodology employed is so drastically different that I think people are still left wonder what exactly it is that I do.
Anthropology is the study of what it means to be human, and the wealth of variation of culture and physiology that includes. Cultural anthropologists are primarily focused on cultural groups and cultural issues around the globe as they pertain to currently living people; as you might imagine this takes an incredibly wide range of forms. From studying HIV clinics in Bolivia to urban development in China to Forestry and Sustainability in the Philipines to grieving practices on Facebook, anthropologists do research anywhere humans are. This research is most commonly referred to as ethnographic fieldwork or sometimes ethnography for short, but an ethnography is really the written product produced documenting anthropologist’s cultural observations. The two most important methodological tools of ethnographic fieldwork are participant observation and ethnographic interviews.
The exact type of hard data each anthropologists documents during this ethnographic experience may vary, but one pattern repeats–tried and true. This method yields incredible, invaluable insight into the culture group being studied, allowing anthropologists to properly situate other more tangible data within its cultural context. Additionally, living with those we study and participating in their daily lives has offered anthropologists countless serendipitous opportunities for uncovering deeply insightful findings. These might come as a chance encounter, an illegal cock-fighting match, a midnight conversation, even in one case a late night police raid on the village an anthropologist was residing in (Greetz 1977; Bernard 2011). Such serendipitous events provide the researcher with an anecdotal stories that exemplify or illuminate key aspects of the human condition, which are frequently worth more than the several months of diligent pursuits of other methods. Other times such as serendipitous event is an experience that provides a unique perspective on the issue being studied, situating the researcher to have both the outsider objectivity and a momentary shared insider experience.
It is fair to say that participant-observation isn’t entirely well-defined even by and for anthropologists who employ it. How do you know when you are doing participant-observation? How do you know you are doing it correctly? These questions have probably haunted anthropology graduate students since the beginning of American Anthropology. Participant-Observation was invented when anthropology first shifted from an armchair discipline to one that required going to the “field.” Now part of the authority of the anthropologist claims comes from actually being there. This later came under critique, as did the anthropologist’s authority, in general, but the necessity of going to field to gain firsthand insight into a culture weathered the storm. In essence, participant-observation is about achieving the same type of organic first-hand exposure to a culture that language learners seek from language immersion programs.
Participant-observation might be defined as the process of living in a culture, alternately with the community of people you are studying, while keeping a detailed record of your observations of public events, daily life, and casual conversations. As anthropologists live in their field site, every communal activity, and human interaction offers the potential to yield insightful information. Anthropologists learn through immersion, living in the same cultural context as the people we are studying. We call it participant-observation occasionally even deep hanging out in an attempt to over emphasize the causal nature of one of our greatest tools. But the point remains the same; we need to absorb the social context while simultaneously analyzing the layers of that social reality and how they might affect the situation being studied.
However, the third vital gift of participant-observation is that it is the perfect set up for ethnographic interviews both formal and informal. Anthropological literature talks a lot about building rapport. What this really means is that you need to establish a relationship with your participants and your community. While informed consent in its strictest sense isn’t required, during the participant-observation stage of research, this is the ideal time to inform community members about your research. They need to know who you are, why you are there, and hopefully after you’ve shared some real genuine human interaction you can begin to build a relationship and trust. Being a part of the community, rather someone that just shows up one day out of the blue wanting to ask questions helps. Informal ethnographic interviews, in all honestly, are really just casual conversations. In participant-observation settings, think community social events, these can actually be allowed to start organically and on equal terms. Once the anthropologist has the lay of the land, after conducting participant-observation for a while (the length of time is always up to the researcher), then she can start looking for people who are willing to be interviewed in a more formal setting. But again, it helps here that the people already either know her or know people who know her. I still like to refer to these as ethnographic interviews albeit formal ethnographic interviews to emphasize that the interview is informed by participant-observation unlike for example interviews of randomly selected college students participating in a psychology survey or a sociological questionnaire.
Cultural anthropologists may also employ a host of other data collecting methods: household surveys, kinship charts, taxonomies, ethnographic decision models, photography, videography, cartography, online questionnaires, and even analysis of digital data like tweets. But participant-observation and ethnographic interviews are our bread and butter.
I have explained them thoroughly to give you my warning, or disclaimer if you will. Once you start conducting participant-observation and ethnographic interviews, you’ll never actually stop. Sure, an anthropologist isn’t always keeping detailed notes about all of life’s observations. But come to think of it, even when I’m not on field note taking duty I still make notes about all my “Fascinating!” observations as soon as I can get to my nearest notebook, cell phone or laptop. After I tell someone or write it down, it keeps the idea percolating in my head and it helps me remember. But that’s not the important part. The important part, it that once you learn how to do participant-observation and then follow it up with thoughtful ethnographically charged questions, well… you sort of can’t turn it off. These tools of inquiry become part of how you think and engage with the world. I was in the mountains on retreat with my friends last weekend and I caught myself doing it, but I didn’t realize what I was doing until I’d already asked the question. It wasn’t in any way related to my dissertation research or really any topic that I’ve directly studied, but I was curious. Then it happened again while I was in a fitness class on Monday. But that is the thing isn’t it, ALL of Human Diversity and what it means to be human, that is what I study. So if you are human and you are talking and doing your thing, whatever your thing is, I’m probably unintentionally studying you. Dear friends, family, communities in which I live, my apologies and warning in advance.
An anthropologist is always conducting research to some extent. Once you learn the tools of anthropology, you cannot simply turn them off because you are at the dinner table with your in-laws or in dance fitness class or listening to someone tell you about their yarn store. I can’t possibly wipe out informed consent forms every time I get inspired, plus I think it might start freaking out those close to me.
So for my friends and family, this is a friendly reminder, I’m an anthropologist and this is what I do. Before I actually publish any stories directly about you, I will always try to go back and ask your permission and give you a chance to preview it. Don’t worry I always change names to protect the not so innocent. Excepting some of the members of my family, of course, who chose to be identified in previous research as it pertained to family history.
For all my past, current and future research participants reading this, I hope this gives you some insight into what anthropology is and what I do with it. I always want you to feel like we are collaborators in the research projects you work with me on. I want you to feel proud reading what I write especially when it pertains to you. I plan to always publish a public audience version of all my material well in advance of any academic publications. If there is anything that concerns you, please feel free to contact me at email@example.com
The strength of anthropology is that we are always learning, gathering data isn’t something we do in a lab or even something we can easily shut off. We learn through immersion, living in the same cultural context as the people we are studying. We call it participant-observation occasionally even deep hanging out in an attempt to over emphasize the causal nature of one of our greatest tools. However, the point remains the same; we need to absorb the social context while simultaneously analyzing the layers of that reality and how they might affect the situation being studied. Then when the moment is right, we start asking thoughtful questions. Sometimes formally in a pre-planned interview setting and sometimes informally while sitting on a couch in someone’s living room or at a local fair in the park. One thoughtfully worded question, placed in the right setting and time, can reveal far more insightful information than a thousand questions asked without context. That is the argument of our discipline.
Check out my post on the Digital Anthropology Interest Group’s website. Digital Research Hub.
The BRIDGING DIGITAL AND PHYSICAL PUBLICS: DIGITAL Anthropologists’ CURRENT ENGAGEMENTS WITH 21st CENTURY PUBLICS panel has been accepted!! It is being reviewed by the Society of Visual Anthropology. The panel with include the following papers:
Anastasiya Travina (Texas State University-San Marcos) 500,000 Tweets and Posts During The First Two Hours Of The London Olympics: Does IT Mean The Olympics Is A Universally Lauded Event?
Meghan M Ferriter (Smithsonian Institution Archives) “It Boils Down to Respect”: Defining the Values of a Fandom Through Conflict Online
Sarah Elaine Dillard Mitchell (Indiana University, Department of Anthropology) TIFF’s Immediate and Mediated Public: Social Media, Public Relations, and the Economies of Talk At the Toronto International Film Festival
Michael P. Oman-Reagan (Hunter College of the City University of New York) Occupying Cyberspace: Indonesian Cyberactivism and Occupy Wall Street
Laura C Jarvis (Southern Methodist University) Facebook Or Face-to-Face: Studying Youth In and Out of the Field
Sarah S Ono (Department of Veteran Affairs) By the Time We Get to the Station Will the Train Already Have Left?: Keeping Up With New Media in the Public Sector
Alissa Beth Kaplan Soto (Hunter College) Women’s Autonomy Through Self-Insemination and Cyberspace
Congratulations and Thank You to all the panel participants and DANG!
Check Us Out on the 112th Annual AAA Conference!
Check out the Digital Anthropology Call for Papers: Call for Papers: Digital Anthropologists’ Current Engagements with 21st Century Publics.
(I am still a bit behind on posting updates–this is from June 12-14)
Insights from University College Dublin
We took a bus to UCD and made a friend of a Canadian en route to the Folklore Library as the three of us wondered the campus lost.
Meeting with Dr. Moore
Even though he had a pretty busy day, Dr. Moore met with me for an hour before I went to the Folklore Library and about an hour afterwards. He was extremely helpful and very interested in my project. He recommends I focus my research on patients and their experiences with using folk cures. He sees the performance of the healing act itself and the role of the healer as periphery. More over, the secretive nature of my subject suggest that the bulk of my data will be coming from patient’s stories of healing (their illness narratives) and that I may have very little opportunity to observe a cure take place. Following his direction, I have altered my research site location avoiding the overly tourist locations in Western Ireland (possible). Dr. Moore assures me that knowledge and use of folk cures is incredibly common throughout Ireland, the only complication is getting people to talk about it. When people’s health is well, it seems people do not normally discuss charms and cures, which could prove problematic. I hope this doesn’t mean that I will only be able to interview people once. Our conversation provided me with great insight into folk cures which could never come for the words on a page alone.
Touring the Folklore Collection Library
UCD has an amazing folklore collection including transcriptions of folklore interviews dating back to the 1930s! http://www.ucd.ie/irishfolklore/en/ This amazing collection of Irish oral traditions, family life, and folk arts includes a quite a sizable amount of entries on folk cures and charms as well as herbal remedies. The staff was incredibly helpful and friendly. I plan to spend some time doing a bit of research there again when I return to Dublin before I leave to come back to the States.
Plan Going Forward from Here (Subject to Change as New Information come to Light)
- Find a New Research Site
- Who I am Interviewing
- Determine what my research questions and what interview questions to ask to address them.
- Conduct Ethnographic Analysis of the Community
Week 1 Ireland – Dublin
Highlights from my first week in Ireland.
First, I think I left out one tiny detail in explaining my plans for Ireland. I guess I should mention that assisting me in doing all that stuff I mentioned in previous posts, is my travel companion Greg Wright: part-time research assistant, part-time body guard (my mom thinks I need one?), part-time 2 am sounding board, and full-time boyfriend.
We arrived in Dublin around 8 am on Thursday June 7. While I was still smiling then, I definitely would not advise arriving in a new country in the morning hours if it can be helped. Unfortunately for me, the cheapest airfare didn’t really give me any options on timing. If you do arrive in the morning, make sure you’ve worked it out in advance so that you have bed upon arrival. Everyone may not need a place to crash after a 13 plus hour flight, but honestly it is a good safety precaution either way because even if you don’t pass out you need a safe place for your luggage. No one wants to be dragging a suitcase any further than necessary.
That said, we got a great deal on a hostel in Dublin and were able to rest up and try to coop with the jet lag. It was situated in the older part of the city which had lots of interesting things to see while getting adjusted to the country.
We stayed in Dublin near the River Liffey, while I met with a professor at the University College Dublin and explored the UCD’s Folklore Collection as a potential resource for my research.
I spoke with Dr. Ronnie Moore and got clear direction about the possibilities of my research. These meetings were immensely informative for my research. Perhaps, the biggest take away for me from our talks was a realization that focusing on “healers” per-say is not really the way to go. In regard to Irish folk cures, the people who “have a cure” for the most part possess it because of unusual characteristic or circumstance or as a birth right of sorts. Instead, I think I will give my attention to the knowledge of folk medicine and the use of folk healing by the average person. More on the contemplation of this talk later.
Preliminary Fieldwork/Pilot Study in Western Ireland
As I mentioned in an earlier blog post, this summer I am going to be in Ireland conducting an 8 week preliminary investigation of Irish Folk Medicine (a subject which is far more complex than that description might led you to think). Irish folk healing insects my two academic areas of specialization medical anthropology and the anthropology of religion. I am particularly interested in the impact of belief (as an action/neurophysiological process) and beliefs (body of knowledge) on wellness- health maintenance and illness recovery. I hope to investigate this in the context of Irish folk medicine. So in short, this 8 week long trip to Ireland will hopefully let me meet and discuss my topic with Irish anthropologists and folklorists; interview Irish people about their experiences and knowledge of Irish folk medicine; determine an appropriate location/locations for me to conduct my research; and establish the significance of my research within the local context. Here’s hoping!
Things to Consider Before I Go…
As I finish packing, send last minute emails and meetings with professors, and antagonize over the finer details of the unplannable aspects of my two month long visit to Ireland, I am simultaneously faced with all the complications of anthropological fieldwork and international travel.
Even if I’ve managed to find all the cheapest but still safe places to stay means to travel (which I probably haven’t despite my best efforts), I am still left pondering all the hard anthropological questions of preliminary fieldwork …
Is my project going to be community focused, multi-sited, regional based, or somehow encompass the whole of Ireland?
I have my research topic and population, but what is my research issue? In other words, how do I really sell my project as worthy of completing. Sure it interests me, but as my dad puts it “why does it matter”?
How can I utilize my time as efficiently and effectively as possible? I’ve written a project proposal and an IRB, so I have been contemplating this question for at least the past six months. But it is definitely something I should ask myself everyday while I am in the field.
Finally, there are all those nagging questions of self-doubt, once I get there will I be able to find the people I am looking for? Will people be willing to talk to me? Here’s hoping my natural charm and sweet disposition, not to mention the years of training, is enough to pull this off.